This is a an area for sharing articles, books or online resources relevant to online interviews or interview research generally.
From my website: http://vision2lead.com/design/
E-Research Tips and Resources
The materials in this area offer practical tips for various steps in the e-interview research process:
Follow the link to a report on ethical issues I wrote this spring; I discussed the report in this recorded presentation. Reviewed materials included guidelines from the Association of Internet Researchers(AOIR), British Educational Research Association (BERA), British Psychological Society (BPS), CASRO, European Society for Opinion and Marketing Research (ESOMAR) and Market Research Society (MRS), and Association (MRA) and a number of books and articles listed here.
These tips are really helpful, especially in thinking about how the encounter between researcher and participant is different in online spaces than face-to-face. A concern I've had in the past with regard to research I have read as well as projects I've been involved in has to do with participants wanting to provide the "right answer." In a face-to-face context, some attention to nonverbal behaviors can help locate the discomfort someone might experience in the dissonance between what seems "right" and what seems "true." Are there any ways to address this in online, asynchronous spaces?
Interesting questions, Linda! Three points in response:
- We do communicate with non-verbal signals online-- in different ways. See Chapter 1 of Online Interviews in Real Time, available online: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/31894_Chapter1.pdf, starting on page 6. We need different literacies to understand the communications.
- If you want facial expressions etc., you can conduct interviews using a videoconference exchange in Skype or Google Hangout.
- For increased credibility, I recommend more than one exchange. Instead of one big, long interview, have some email/text exchanges, an interview, some observations if the person is active on social media. For one thing you can build trust and rapport. For another you can triangulate your data.
Any of those ideas make sense for your research?
For those who use obsrvations or posts in their studies, the question arises: how do users feel about having their content used in research? I was on the advisory team for this fantastic study conducted by a group of NatCen researchers. It is a must-read!
Research Using Social Media
Just to say thank you so much for all these resources and I am so sorry I am having to lurk at the moment with so much going on but I am hoping to get into catch up mode soon. I have just downloaded John Latham's book which looks really helpful and interesting - one to definitely pass on to students.
Here are some of my favorite resources related to visual methods generally. For the most part they do not provide explanations about how to apply the approaches online, but hopefully after the webinar you will have lots of ideas about how to do so! Chapter 6 of Qualitative Online Interviews focuses on visual methods.
Feel free to add your favorites to the list!
Banks, M. (2001). Visual methods in social research. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Banks, M. (2007). Using visual data in qualitative research. London: Sage Publications.
Cidell, J. (2010). Content clouds as exploratory qualitative data analysis Cidell Content clouds as exploratory qualitative data analysis. Area, 42(4), 514-523. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-4762.2010.00952.x
Clark-Ibáñez, M. (2004). Framing the social world with photo-elicitation interviews. In J. Hughes (Ed.), Visual Methods. (Vol. 47). London: SAGE Publications Ltd.
Correia, N. N. (2012). AVOL: Towards an integrated audio-visual expression. Journal of Visual Art Practice, 10(3), 201-214. doi: 10.1386/jvap.10.3.201_1
Crilly, N., Blackwell, A., & John Clarkson, P. (2006). Graphic Elicitation: Using Research Diagrams as Interview Stimuli. In J. Hughes (Ed.), Sage Visual Methods. (Vol. 6). London: Sage Publications.
Debes, J. (1968). Some foundations of visual literacy. Audio-Visual Instruction, 13, 961-964.
Fathulla, K., Warren, S., & Pontis, S. (2011). A framework for analysing diagrams. Paper presented at the Visual Methods Conference.
Goldstein, B. M. (2007). All photos lie: Images as data. In G. C. Stanczak (Ed.), Visual research methods: Image, society, and representation. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Gruber, T., Szmigin, I., Reppel, A. E., & Voss, R. (2008). Designing and conducting online interviews to investigate interesting consumer phenomena. Qualitative Market Research, 11(3), 256-274. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13522750810879002
Guell, C., & Ogilvie, D. (2013). Picturing commuting: photovoice and seeking wellbeing in everyday travel. Qualitative Research. doi: 10.1177/1468794112468472
Holm, G. (2010). Visual research methods: Where are we and where are we going? In S. N. Hesse-Biber & P. Leavy (Eds.), Handbook of Emergent Methods. New York: Guilford Press.
Kwan, M.-P. (2008). From oral histories to visual narratives: Re-presenting the post-September 11 experiences of the Muslim women in the United States. Social and Cultural Geography, 9(6), 653-669.
Lillie, J. (2012). Nokia’s MMS: A cultural analysis of mobile picture messaging. New Media & Society, 14(1), 80-97. doi: 10.1177/1461444811410400
Mitchell, C. (2011). Doing visual research. London: Sage Publications.
Pain, H. (2012). A literature review to evaluate the choice and use of visual methods. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 11(4).
Patricia, B., & Sharon, M. (2006). Visual images: A technique to surface conceptions of research and researchers. Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management, 1(2), 113-113. doi: 10.1108/17465640610686370
Pink, S. (2013). Doing visual ethnography (Third ed.). London: Sage Publications.
Rose, G. (2012). Visual methodologies: An introduction to researching with visual materials. London: Sage Publications.
Salmons, J. (in press). Method in Action Case Studies: Visual methods in online interviews. Sage Research Methods Cases.
Sligo, F., & Tilley, E. (2011). When words fail us: Using visual composites in research reporting. In J. Hughes (Ed.), SAGE Visual Methods. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.
Thanks so much for sharing this list of resources.
I am sorry to arrive so late to this discussion. I have been away.
I am particularly interested in the issues surrounding ethics as I am not affiliated to an institution of Higher Education and therefore cannot be covered in my research by the umbrella of a University Ethics committee.
In some research that two colleagues and I are currently conducting we tried to make our ethical approach transparent. See - http://jennymackness.wordpress.com/rhizo14-research/
I'd be interested to know if you think we missed anything significant as we are about to start the second round of interviews. I still have to go through your resources carefully.
Finally I notice that you have referenced the AOIR Guidelines. My colleagues and I have just come across the attached which looks helpful too.
Now to catch up with the webinar recording!